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Mark Crocker; Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez

Chemical Catalysts for Biomass Upgrading

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ISBN: 978-3-527-81480-0
Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: E-Book Text (EPUB (mit DRM) sofort downloaden
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640 Seiten, 2019

Kurztext / Annotation

A comprehensive reference to the use of innovative catalysts and processes to turn biomass into value-added chemicals

Chemical Catalysts for Biomass Upgrading offers detailed descriptions of catalysts and catalytic processes employed in the synthesis of chemicals and fuels from the most abundant and important biomass types, The contributors?noted experts on the topic?focus on the application of catalysts to the pyrolysis of whole biomass and to the upgrading of bio-oils,

The authors discuss catalytic approaches to the processing of biomass-derived oxygenates, as exemplified by sugars, via reactions such as reforming, hydrogenation, oxidation, and condensation reactions, Additionally, the book provides an overview of catalysts for lignin valorization via oxidative and reductive methods and considers the conversion of fats and oils to fuels and terminal olefins by means of esterification/transesterification, hydrodeoxygenation, and decarboxylation/decarbonylation processes, The authors also provide an overview of conversion processes based on terpenes and chitin, two emerging feedstocks with a rich chemistry, and summarize some of the emerging trends in the field, This important book:

-Provides a comprehensive review of innovative catalysts, catalytic processes, and catalyst design
-Offers a guide to one of the most promising ways to find useful alternatives for fossil fuel resources
-Includes information on the most abundant and important types of biomass feedstocks
-Examines fields such as catalytic cracking, pyrolysis, depolymerization, and many more

Written for catalytic chemists, process engineers, environmental chemists, bioengineers, organic chemists, and polymer chemists, Chemical Catalysts for Biomass Upgrading presents deep insights on the most important aspects of biomass upgrading and their various types,

Mark Crocker is Associate Director at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, where he leads the Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis research program, and Professor of Chemistry at the University of Kentucky,
Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez is Principal Research Scientist at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, His current work focuses on the application of heterogeneous catalysis to the production of renewable fuels and chemicals,


Upgrading of Biomass via Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis (CFP)

Charles A. Mullen

USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA, USA
1.1 Introduction

Defined as heating of an organic material in a nonoxidative environment, pyrolysis has been recognized for decades as the most efficient process for converting lignocellulosic biomass into a dense liquid, commonly called pyrolysis oil or bio-oil [ 1 - 3 ]. The most commonly used conditions for conversion of biomass to liquid have been high heating rates to temperatures of around 500°C, at atmospheric pressure, the so-called fast pyrolysis process [ 1 - 3 ]. The fast pyrolysis process offers many advantages that make it attractive for conversion of biomass to bio-fuel intermediates and production of renewable chemicals. These advantages include high liquid yields (60% in some cases) and production of a potentially valuable coproduct in bio-char . This solid, consisting of fixed carbon and minerals, has been shown to be a good soil amender and a potential route to sequester carbon [ 4 - 6 ]. With the potential utilization of the combustible off gases, and if needed some of the bio-char, pyrolysis can be powered by its own energy, making it a nearly self-sufficient process requiring few other inputs [ 3 ].

Bio-oil contains hundreds of oxygenated compounds derived from the cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin that comprise the biomass. In recent years, much has been made of bio-oil as a potential intermediate to the production of advanced hydrocarbon transportation fuels or as a feedstock from which to isolate renewable chemicals. However, commercial or even precommercial success for utilization of these bio-oils has been limited to lower value applications such as use as boiler-type fuels for heat and power [ 3 , 7 ] or utilization as an asphalt-like material [ 8 ]. The technical reason for these limitations is that the composition of the bio-oil, comprising high concentrations of reactive oxygenated functional groups, plus the presence of catalytic microsolids, makes the mixture thermally unstable [ 9 - 11 ]. Therefore, processing technologies requiring even moderate heating of the bio-oil mixture, such as distillation, result in production of intractable materials [ 12 ]. While catalytic hydrodeoxygenation ( HDO ) has been the post-production upgrading choice for refining of bio-oil to hydrocarbons to be used as fuels, the unstable nature of the bio-oil also makes this HDO process difficult. The most effective post-production deoxygenation processes developed require multiple catalytic, high pressure hydrotreating steps, at significant cost, making the production of a low margin fuel product of questionable economic viability [ 13 - 15 ].

Because of these limitations, researchers have sought to develop processes that alter the chemical pathways during pyrolysis to produce a more stable bio-oil product with more favorable compositions for various end-use applications, including HDO. Utilization of heterogeneous catalysts during the pyrolysis process, termed catalytic fast pyrolysis ( CFP ), has received the most attention. Because of the interest in advanced hydrocarbon bio-fuels, the most common goal of catalytic pyrolysis has been to produce a partially deoxygenated, thermally stable pyrolysis oil that is more amenable to final HDO-type upgrading to fuel-range hydrocarbons. However, alternative processes have aimed to converge chemical pathways toward production of various individual compounds or groups of compounds for petrochemical or fine chemical uses. In this chapter we will discuss CFP processes both aimed at general deoxygenation and those aimed at targeted cl

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